Can neurofilament light chain predict neurotoxicity after CAR-T cell therapy?

Researchers in Seattle have assessed whether neurofilament light chain (NfL) predicts neurotoxicity after treatment with chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) T cell therapy.

Neurotoxicity is a common complication of cancer immunotherapy, according to Dr Juliane Gust of Seattle Children’s Hospital in Washington, USA. “For CAR-T cells, which are modified patient T cells that are redirected to attack cancer cells, we see neurotoxicity in about 40% of patients,” she said. Possible manifestations include altered mental status, seizure, coma, and cerebral edema.

Dr Gust and colleagues measured NfL levels in a series of children with relapsed/refractory lymphoma undergoing CAR-T cell therapy. Samples of serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) were collected before and 7–10 days after treatment.